The many features offered by our Mercury Safe and Mercury Free (Amalgam Free) Dentist Internet Directory are important but none more so then its ranking with the major search engines and the number of people visiting our Directory. The key to effective marketing on the Internet is to cost-effectively maximize your Internet Exposure, minimize your advertising costs and generate a high Return-On-Investment (ROI). The best way to ensure this, when advertising on the Internet, is to make sure that those looking for Mercury Free and Mercury Safe dentists will easily and quickly find you. In that regard, the most important consideration regarding having a Prominent Internet Presence is the ranking on the major search engines.
Mercury Safe Dentists: How to Increase your Search Engine Ranking
Today, over 90% of those looking for Mercury Safe and Mercury Free dentists find them on the Internet. Dr. McGuire's Mercury Safe Dentist Internet Directory is the highest ranked Dental Internet Directory, or Dental Organization, on Every Internet Search Engine. The high ranking of his Mercury Safe Directory is the Key to establishing a Prominent Internet Presence so that those searching for a Mercury Safe and Mercury Free dentist will find Dr. McGuire's Mercury Safe Directory, and through them, find your Listing Page on it.
For any Dental Directory to be relevant it must be found on the First Page of every Search Engine. Below are some of the most Common Key Phrases used by those searching for a Mercury Free (Amalgam Free) and Mercury Safe dentist. In the chart of Common Key Phrases listed below, the X indicates that Dr. McGuire's Mercury Safe Dentist Directory will be found on the First Page of the 3 major Search Engines; Google, MSN and Yahoo. No other Dental Directory can make that claim!
The extraordinary High Ranking of Dr. McGuire's Mercury Safe Dentist Internet Directory will ensure that your Listing Page on the Directory will get maximum exposure by potential patients searching the Internet for a Mercury Safe Dentist in your area. (In fact, most of the Key Phrases listed below will will be found at the Top of the First Page - or in the Top 5 of the First Page.)
You could never hope to achieve that kind of Internet Exposure without spending 10s, if not 100s of thousands of dollars!
Web Server Statistics
Web server statistics show that Dr. McGuire's websites are now averaging over 500,000 monthly successful requests per month and the number of those finding our websites is increasing every month.
One of the questions we are asked the most is, "Are you able to track the number of visitors who come to my listing page on Dr. McGuire's Mercury Safe Dentist Internet Directory?" It's an important question and the answer is, "Yes we can track them for you!"
In order to gather this information we've added a software program that allows us to track how many visitors actually click on each members listing page. This is an excellent way to track traffic and will clearly demonstrate the Prominent Internet Exposure that listing with Dr. McGuire generates for his members. Thus, at the end of each year, members can ask us how many people visited their listing during that year.
If you have a website, we are also are able to track the number of times a visitor clicks on your links (you get two links per listing). At the end of each year we can provide you with the number of clicks.
The chart below, name of dentist is withheld, is an example of how we track the number of people who actually open the Listing Page of dentists Listed on the Dirctory. It also gives you an idea of how the number of people searching the Internet for a Mercury Safe Dentist is increasing each year. For the small annual cost I can't see why you'd want to miss out on the opportunity to generate such a Prominent Internet Presence.
A picture is worth 1000 words and once you see what a member dentist listing looks like, and how comprehensive the information is, it will be easy to visualize what yours would look like. You will have the opportunity to personalize your listing so those searching the Internet for mercury safe and mercury free dentists will discover who your are, what you offer and why they should choose you as their dentist. The following are links to some of our member listings and we encourage you to review them.
To view the listing of Michael Margolis, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Mesa, AZ Click Here
To view the listing of Nicholas Meyer, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Scottsdale, AZ Click Here
To view the listing of S. Ward Eccles, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Livermore, CA Click Here
To view the listing of David Biles, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Santa Cruz, CA Click Here
To view the listing of Mary Ellen Chalmers, DDS, Mercury free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Santa Rosa, CA Click Here
To view the listing of Marcia Basciano, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Downers Grove, IL Click Here
To view the listing of Phillip Sukel, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Huntley, IL Click Here
To view the listing of Janet Stopka, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Palos Heights, IL Click Here
To view the listing of Jack Kall, DMD, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Louisville, KY Click Here
To view the listing of Mike Robichaux, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Slidell, LA Click Here
To view the listing of Michael LeBlanc, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Thibodaux, LA Click Here
To view the listing of Mark Wisniewski, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Greenfield, MA Click Here
To view the listing of Marjan Seywerd, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Augusta, ME Click Here
To view the listing of Ian Shuman, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Pasadena, MD Click Here
To view the listing of Keith Dobracki, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Ann Arbor, MI Click Here
To view the listing of David Regiani, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Ortonville, MI Click Here
To view the listing of Amy Kinney, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Bozeman, MT Click Here
To view the listing of Todd Kinney, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Bozeman MT Click Here
To view the listing of Pamela Lilly, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Whitefish, MT Click Here
To view the Listing of Carl McMillan, DMD, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Cary, NC Click Here
To view the listing of Matthew Young, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Hendersonville, NC Click Here
To view the listing of William Virtue, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Yadkinville, NC Click Here
To view the listing of Philip Memoli, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Berkeley Heights, NJ Click Here
To view the listing of Stephen Markus, DMD, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Haddon Heights, NJ Click Here
To view the listing of Mark Berkowitz, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Morganville, NJ Click Here
To view the listing of Phillip Mollica, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Saddle Brook, NJ Click Here
To view the listing of Vladimir Gashinsky, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Milburn, NJ Click Here
To view the listing of Bill Wolfe, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Albuquerque, NM Click Here
To view the listing of Terry Messerman, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Beachwood, OH Click Here
To view the listing of Richard Chanin, DMD, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Cincinnati, OH Click Here
To view the listing of Tara Hardin, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Cincinnati, OH Click Here
To view the listing of Tammy DeGorgorio, DMD, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Pittsburgh, PA Click Here
To view the listing of Blanche Grube, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Scranton, PA Click Here
To view the listing of John Palmer, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Greenville, SC Click Here
To view the listing of Griffin Cole, DDS, Mercury Free and Mercury Safe Dentist in Austin, TX Click Here
To view the listing of Joan Sefcik, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Austin, TX Click Here
To view the listing of Stuart Nunnally, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Marble Falls, TX Click Here
To view the listing of William Glaros, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury safe Dentist in Spring, TX Click Here
To view the listing of Richard Fischer, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Annandale, VA Click Here
To view the listing of Cheryl Billingsley, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Richmond, VA Click Here
To view the listing of Paul Rubin, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Seattle, WA Click Here
To view the listing of Paul Rubin, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Bonney Lake, WA Click Here
To view the listing of Pierre Larose, DDS, Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist in Montreal, Quebec, Canada Click Here
You can view the Find a mercury free and Mercury Safe Dentist Directory Page that people are directed to when searching for mercury safe and mercury free dentists on the Internet by Clicking Here. You can also view Dr. McGuire's Home Page by Clicking on www.dentalwellness4u.com. As you will see, it has a prominently placed image and link to the Find a Mercury Free Dentist Page for those who come to the Home Page by searching for other subjects involving oral health, such as, Mercury Detoxification Program (#1 on Google), the Relationship of Oral to Overall Health (#1 on Google) or Preventing Dental Disease (#1 on Google). These high rankings provide your office with additional exposure.
Read what those Listing on Dr. McGuire's Mercury Safe Directory have to say about the benefits of listing with him.
“I recently discovered that more and more people are using the Internet to find mercury free and mercury safe dentists. In my search to improve my Internet presence I decided to list my practice with Dr. Tom McGuire’s Mercury Free Dentist Internet Listing Service. This was a good choice as a number of patients have come to my practice because they found me on his websites.
It is very cost-effective and he offers many other worthwhile benefits, including access to the largest organized, referenced and abstracted database of articles on many areas of the mercury issue. It also offers direct access to Dr. McGuire, one of the leading authorities on mercury amalgam fillings, chronic mercury poisoning, and mercury detoxification. I would highly recommend his listing service to mercury free and mercury safe dentists who are looking to get more Internet exposure.”
822 NE Northgate Way
Seattle, Washington 98125
"My practice has been engaged in mercury-safe protocol for many years. When we established a listing on Dr. Tom McGuire's Mercury Safe Dentist Directory, we noticed a significant increase in our new patient phone calls for this level of service. As prospective patients search the internet for mercury amalgam information, it quickly becomes obvious that Dr. McGuire is a well-established expert on the topic. His endorsement of our practice on his Directory has led to many new patient calls. Additionally, as patients call with detailed questions and concerns about the issue, we can point them to his site for the most comprehensive catalogue of articles, history and information on the topic. Given that my practice is committed to a health-centered, holistic approach to the delivery of dental care, it has been a significant benefit to have our practice listed on Dr. Tom McGuire's Directory. Thank you, Dr. McGuire, for your tireless efforts to help concerned dental patients find mercury-safe dental practices that can help them. "
485 E. Columbia Ave.
Battle Creek, Michigan 49015
“I’ve been a member of Dr. McGuire’s Mercury Free and Mercury Safe Directory for one-year and I’ve gotten a number of referrals from it. He is continually adding new features and I’ve found it to be an excellent way to get found on the internet. It’s worked so well I’ve renewed for two-years and I highly recommend it. His websites are also a good source of information for the Layperson.”
444 Community Dr.
Manhasset, New York 11030
"Our dental office is mercury free since 1985, but before we signed up for Dr. McGuire’s Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist Internet Directory , we didn't get patients who were looking for mercury free and mercury safe dentist on the Internet. Since more and more people are looking on the Internet for mercury safe dentists, Dr. McGuire's listing beings us more and more patients.
Even though we have our own web site, most patients found us through Dr. McGuire's listing, since his search engine placement is so high. We found that Dr. McGuire's listing service is the most cost-effective way of promoting our mercury free and mercury safe dental practice. We also purchased lots of Dr. McGuire's books as they are excellent for educating our patients and other health professionals that we are associated with."
Advanced Dental Care
5038 Tacoma Mall Blvd. Ste. A
Tacoma, WA 98409
I have gotten a ton of new patients from referrals from your site. Best advertising dollars I have ever spent! More new patients than anything else besides word of mouth referrals. My web site was just a single page, and not optimized at all for search engines, but people looking for holistic dentists do their research on the internet, and I was able to advertise my site on the first page by going thru your site.
1966 East Chapman Ave.
Fullerton, CA 92831
"Thank you very much for this wonderful listing. I was only expecting to have my name listed but you have provided patients with a nice glimpse into our practice. I am VERY impressed and glad to belong to such a professional organization."
407 S. Main
Leland, MI 49654
The directory has been great. Terrific actually. The listing I find incredibly useful and for many people who were looking for me it has been the way they have done that. Thanks for the service. I am very pleased.
3604 52 Ave NW.
Calgary, AB Canada T2L 1V9
“I am a member of the Mercury Free and Mercury Safe Dentist Internet Directory and have found it to be a very inexpensive way of promoting my mercury free dental practice on the Internet. I believe Dr. McGuire’s listing service is the best one available and it has provided me with the opportunity to develop high Internet visibility for those people searching for mercury free and mercury safe dentists. We’ve received a number of patients from it.”
Health Centered Dentistry
River Falls, WI 54022
“I signed up for Dr. McGuire’s Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist Internet Directory because I didn’t have a website and wanted to have a way for patients looking on the Internet to find me. I learned that the majority of people looking for mercury free dentists find them by searching the Internet and realized that without a website they would never find me.
Dr. McGuire’s Listing Service acts like a personal website for me, allowing me to get information about my practice out to those who use the Internet for this purpose. It has worked very well for me, it is very inexpensive, much less than having my own website, and it has bought me many new patients. If you are a mercury free and mercury safe dentist and want to access more patients I highly recommend his listing service.”
Via Poniente #4246-17
Tijuana, Baja California
Having a listing on Dr. Tom's Mercury Safe Dentist Directory is like having a Second Website for the mercury safe segment of your practice. The listing page is designed as a Website and is so comprehensive, and has so much information, that patients viewing it will see it as being a 2nd website. (If you don't have a website it will serve as one for you - at a fraction of the cost.) It has the look and feel of a website, including a Homepage, contact information, Services, links to your own website, and a Google Map. It also means that most patients who are asked how they found you will say they found you from your Mercury Safe website.
Being Listed on a Directory that is also a Website also means you can add a link to it from your website - making it easy for patients interested in this segment of your practice to find more specific information about the importance of mercury safe dentistry. Of course if you do not have a website it means your Directory Listing will serve as one for you - with the added benefit of having the same high search engine ranking that we have. But the best news is that the Website format is included in your Directory Listing fee and you don't have to pay for having it developed or do any maintenance. Thus, what you end up getting is a listing on the highest ranked Directory on Google and - a free website for the annual fee of only $450.00. There is nothing like this available anywhere!
We believe that the new wave of Social Media sites can help promote your mercury safe practice. One of the benefits of being listed on Dr. Tom's Mercury Safe Dentist Internet Directory is that we provide links to your Social Media pages. We offer links to Facebook, Linkedin, Twitter, Plaxo, and YouTube. When you become a member of our Directory please tell our staff if you have a Social Media Page and provide us with the URL of that page. Once we add the link a logo of that social media page will appear on your listing and a visitor only has to click on the logo to link to your page.
At $450.00 per year, our listing service provides:
Compare Our Mercury Safe Dentist Directory to Others
No other Directory comes even close to what we offer and if you compare ours to any other you'll see that for the same price you basically get your name, address, phone number, city, state, and maybe a website address. If you haven't yet reviewed a member's listing I encourage you to view Dr. Paul Rubin's by Clicking Here.
But the most important distinction between Dr. McGuire's mercury free and Mercury Safe Dentists Internet Directory and the others is you that will be directly associated with one of the leading authorities on mercury free and mercury safe dentistry, chronic mercury poisoning, mercury detoxification and holistic dental wellness. You will also have direct contact with him and he is available to answer questions from members. You deal directly with Dr. McGuire and not a sales person!
In addition, unlike the other directory services, Dr. McGuire's websites provide you, your office staff, and your patients with the most popular, most visited and most informative website dealing with important oral health subjects. With over 370 pages of information, his website provides a source of continuously updated information about a wide range of subjects ranging from mercury amalgam fillings, chronic mercury poisoning, and mercury detoxification . . . to dental disease prevention and the relationship of oral to overall health.
Once you've compared us to the other Listing Services we know you will readily see the differences and understand why we have the best mercury free and Mercury Safe Dentist Internet Directory available on the Internet.
The expanded listing includes the following features:
Members will also receive:
All of these features and benefits are available to you for an Annual Directory Listing Fee of only $450.00. As a dentist, or office manager, we feel certain you can readily appreciate the value of listing with Listing on our Directory.
Having a Listing on Dr. McGuire's Mercury Safe Dentist Internet Directory and a member of the IAMSD you will be directly associated with Dr. McGuire and his popular, informative and user friendly websites. This relationship will enhance your credibility with patients seeking a Mercury Free Dentist. We are confident that once you review the websites you will readily see the benefits of this relationship.
How to access the Mercury Free and Mercury Safe Internet Directory is also prominently positioned on the Home Page of Dr. McGuire's websites. In addition, many other pages in Dr. McGuire's websites, such as those involving prevention and the important relationship of oral to overall health, are in the top ten ranking of the major search engines, such as Google, MSN and Yahoo.
We invite you to explore Dr. McGuire's websites, www.dentalwellness4u.com and www.mercuryfreenow.com to see how effective they are at accessing and directing patients seeking mercury free and mercury safe dentists to the database listing and then to a member's mercury safe practice. Both websites are state-of-the art, easy to use and provide an extraordinary amount of useful information to the public. In addition, Dr. McGuire has written three best selling books, The Poison in Your Teeth: Mercury Amalgam (Silver) Fillings: Hazardous to Your Health, Healthy Teeth-Healthy Body and Mercury Detoxification: The Natural Way to Remove Mercury from Your Body. He is one of the leading authorities on mercury amalgam fillings, mercury detoxification and dental wellness and has high recognition and credibility with the layperson. You can view his biography by Clicking Here.
The primary purpose of our Mercury Safe Dentist Internet Directory is to provide you with the Prominent Internet Presence you must have to bring people seeking a mercury free dentist to your office. Our Directory Service is the most cost-effective way to do that but it is also important to compare the cost of listing with us to other forms of advertisement. For example, you could spend significantly more each month advertising with the Yellow Pages, print media, newspapers, radio and television . . . than you would spend in a year of listing with us. Yet none of these advertising media's will reach the 70% of those who find a mercury safe and mercury free dentist by searching the Internet!
The websites and the mercury free and mercury safe dentist database will also be actively promoted by Dr. McGuire in his consultations, books, lectures, media interviews, articles, workshops and seminars. Word-of-mouth is effective and this will draw more and more patients to the Find a Mercury Free and Mercury Safe Dentist Directory and increase your exposure.
Website or No Website
Advertising with Dr. McGuire's Directory is important whether you have a website or not. The key to attracting new patients to your practice is having them find you on the Internet, through listing on our Directory.
Utilizing Dr. McGuire’s Websites & Books as a Teaching Tool
Both of Dr. McGuire's websites are extremely user-friendly and informative about every aspect of dental wellness. As a member of the Listing Service you will be able to take advantage of the websites to educate your patients about mercury amalgam fillings, mercury detoxification, and the relationship of oral to overall health.
Utilizing Dr. McGuire's websites as a teaching tool is even more important if you don't have a website.
For example, see what he has to say about;
These are just a few pages on his websites that together are filled with nearly 300 pages of oral health information for the layperson.
Another exceptional benefit of Listing on the Directory/Website is being able to purchase Dr. McGuire’s educational and motivational books at volume discounts and then provide them to your patients as teaching tools to educate them about mercury amalgam fillings, mercury detoxification, dental disease prevention, and the relationship of oral to overall health.
The value to your practice of using Dr. McGuire's books to educate your patients is that you will be able to provide your patients information about these important subjects from one of the leading authorities on dental wellness. Dr. McGuire realizes how time consuming it is to educate your patients at the dental office. This "teach patients at home' concept will save your staff, your hygienist and yourself valuable time by shifting the responsibility of educating the patient to the patient . . . where it rightfully belongs. You might have to treat your patients at the office, but you don't have to teach them there! Access information about How to Make Patient Education Rewarding and Profitable.
Providing your patients with easy to understand and useful information about these important topics will give you a distinct advantage over other dentists and provide you with positive word-of-mouth advertising; by far the most effective source of patient referrals. We recommend that you stamp each book you give or sell with your office's contact information as they will get passed around and this is another excellent way to 'spread the word' about your practice.
A Listing in the Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist Internet Directory is open to any dentist who agrees to commit to the following:
• The dentist will not place mercury amalgam fillings;
• The dentist will use safe amalgam removal procedures;
• Every treatment or service offered by a dentist in his or her listing will be available to the patient;
• The dentist will be adequately trained in every treatment and therapy he or she offers;
• The dentist will, if requested, provide patients with a source of information about mercury amalgam fillings, mercury detoxification, oral hygiene education, and the relationship of oral to overall health. (Directing your patients to Dr. McGuire’s websites will also fulfill the requirement of providing your patients with a source of information about these important subjects);
• The dentist pledges to practice with integrity and honesty.
Committing to these basic guidelines will assure that the patient searching for a dentist Listed on his Directory will be selecting a dentist who is committed to the philosophy and practice of mercury free and Mercury Safe Dentistry. The above guidelines are available for patients to view on the Find a Mercury Free & Mercury Safe Dentist page on Dr. McGuire's web sites, www.dentalwellness4u.com and www.mercuryfreenow.com. Member dentists will be easily recognized by the distinctive IAMSD logo prominently placed next to the member's name in the mercury free and mercury safe dentist directory on both of Dr. McGuire's websites.
Whether you are a dentist or office manager we are certain you can now fully appreciate the many features and advantages of a Listing on Dr. McGuire's Mercury Free and Mercury Safe Dentist Internet Directory. The advantage of having the Positive Internet Presence your Listing will provide you will translate into the addition of many new patients to your practice.
When considering any type of marketing/promotion the cost and the return-on-investment (ROI) must always be factored in and you will soon see how beneficial Listing with our Directory/Website will be for you.
Directory Listing Fees
One-Year Listing (Single Office - 1 Dentist): $ 450.00
Two-Year Listing (Single Office - 1 Dentist): $ 850.00
One-Year Listing (Two Offices - 1 Dentist): $ 575.00
One-Year Listing (Two Dentists): $ 690.00
Two-Year Listing (Two Dentists): $ 1310.00
One-Year Associate Listing: $ 240.00
Two-Year Associate Listing: $ 450.00
Second Office Listing (Each): $ 125.00
Two Year Listing (Additional Office) $ 1080.00 each
As you know, it only takes one new patient to make your Listing worthwhile. (The Listing Fee includes all registration and processing costs.)
Purchase a Mercury Safe Dentist Internet Directory/Website Listing
Purchasing a Listing is easy and the Annual Listing Fee for one office is only $450.00 per year (including registration and processing costs). To fill out the Listing Contact Information Form and Purchase your Listing Click Here. Once you have purchased your Listing you will be sent a Confirmation Email providing you with:
Your complimentary copy of The Poison in Your Teeth and the IAMSD membership certificate will be mailed to you.
As a member of the Mercury Safe Dentist Internet Directory, you are Now Eligible for Automatic Renewal. This is a special service we offer that is designed to make renewing your Listing as easy as possible! Doing so saves you and your staff significant time, less bookkeeping hassles, eliminates troublesome paper work, and unnecessary correspondences by phone and email. And as you know, in the dental Office, "Time is Money." Plus, you don't want to inadvertently lose your listing because an invoice was misplaced or an email was lost......
Here is how it works. We set you up for Automatic Renewal and when your Listing Renewal is due, be it for one year, two years, or more, it will be automatically renewed - and you will be sent a Renewal Receipt of Purchase via email. If you want to use another method of payment you've only to contact our office and we will make the necessary changes.
Once you have Listed we will ask you if you want to set-up your Automatic Renewal. Nothing else for you to do as we do it all for you and - it only takes a few minutes. If you have any questions please contact Susan Weinzinger, or our office, at 800-335-7755, or Click Here to email her.
"We are all in this together and only together we can truly make a difference!"
Tom McGuire, DDS
The Dental Wellness Institute
Mercury Free Dentist Internet Directory
International Association of Mercury Safe Dentists (IAMSD)
Within the USA: 1-800-335-7755
Outside the USA: 707-829-7220
For more information about Dr. McGuire's Mercury Safe Dentist Internet Directory Listing or to speak with Dr. McGuire call toll free at 800-335-7755.
It is up to each member to provide the information on the listing, to ensure its accuracy and make any relevant changes in a timely manner.